Facts about Olive Oil, their characteristics, health benefits and more
Olive Oil is a fat obtained from the olive fruit, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The Olive Oil, is produced by grinding whole olives and extracting the oil by mechanical means (or even by chemical means). It is commonly used for cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and soaps and even as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive Oil is used throughout the world; however, it is a part of the daily lifestyle especially in the Mediterranean countries.
Three countries are the major Olive Oil producers in the world. Spain, Italy and Greece. Together they produce more than 75% of the world production. Spain alone produces more than 30% of the world’s Olive Oil with around 75% of this being produced in the region of Andalusia. Italy is also a major importer of Olive Oil from Spain, often importing more oil than it exports, a majority of which is rebranded for exports. Portugal accounts for around 5% of the world’s production and its major exports are for Brazil.
The International Olive Council (IOC) is an intergovernmental organisation based in Madrid, Spain; with 23 member states. It promotes Olive Oil around the world by tracking production, defining quality standards and monitoring authenticity. More than 85% of the world’s olives are grown in IOC member nations.
Olive Oil is classified by how it was produce, by its chemistry, and by panels that perform Olive Oil tasting. The IOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for Olive Oils.
Production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. This paste is then malaxed (churned or mixed) to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). After extraction the remnant sold substance called pomace, still contains a very small quantity of oil.
The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:
Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label.
Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterised as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil; oils with the retail labels Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Virgin Olive Oil cannot contain any refined oil
Olive pomace oil means oil extracted from the pomace using solvents mostly hexane and by heat.
Quantitative analysis can determine the oil’s acidity, defined as the percent, measured by weight, of free oleic acid it contains. This is a measure of the oil’s chemical degradation; as the oil degrades, more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides, increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Another measure of the oil’s chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level, which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidised, another cause of rancidity.
To classify it by taste, Olive Oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. This is also called organoleptic quality.
In countries that adhere to the standards of the IOC the labels in the stores show the oil’s grade.
Extra Virgin Olive Oil comes from virgin oil production only, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. Extra virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries; the percentage is far higher in Mediterranean countries though. It is used for cooking, on salads, added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping.
Virgin Olive Oil comes from virgin oil production only, has acidity less than 1.5% and is judged to have a good taste.
Pure Olive Oil is usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil.
Olive Oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil, of no more than 2% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
Olive pomace oil is refined pomace olive oil often blended with some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but may not be described simple as olive oil. It has a more neutral flavor than Pure or Virgin Olive Oil, making it unfashionable among connoisseurs; however, since it also has a high smoke point thus, is widely used in restaurants as well as home cooking in some countries.
Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food; lampante comes from olive oil’s long-standing use in oil burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.
Refined Olive Oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils with high acidity level and/organoleptic defects that are eliminated after refining. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil, but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.
The different names for olive oil indicate the degree of processing the oil has undergone as well as the quality of the oil.
Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the highest grade available, followed by Virgin Olive Oil. The word “Virgin” indicates that the olives have been pressed to extract the oil; no heat or chemicals have been used during the extraction process, and the oil is pure and unrefined. Virgin Olive Oils contain the highest levels or polyphenols, antioxidants that have been linked with better health.
Made from refined olive oil means that the taste and composition are chemically controlled, usually to improve lower quality oils.
Cold pressed or cold extraction means that the oil was not heated over a certain temperature (usually 27C) during processing, thus retaining more nutrients and undergoing less degradation.
First cold pressed means that the fruit of the olive was crushed exactly one time i.e. the first press. The cold refers to the temperature range of the fruit at the time it is crushed.
PDO and PGI refers to Olive Oils with exceptional properties and quality derived from their place of origin as well as from the way of their production
The label may also indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label; it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.
Evidence from epidemiological studies also suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet are linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. This is significant because Olive Oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats, most notably oleic acid.
In the United States, producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels:
Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp (23g) of Olive Oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in Olive Oil. To achieve this possible benefit, Olive Oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.
There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) can provide heart-health-benefits such as favorable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation, and that it exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-hypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans. Additionally, EVOO protects against heart disease as it controls the bad levels of LDL cholesterol and raises levels of the good cholesterol, HDL.
Another health benefit of EVOO seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fatty acids, while not having any impact on omega-3 fatty acids. This way, EVOO helps to build a more health balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.
Unlike saturated fats, EVOO lowers total cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.
EVOO contains the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids and oleuropein, a chemical that may help prevent the oxidation of LDL particles.
EVOO contains a wide variety of valuable antioxidants that are not found in other oils. Hydroxytyrosol is thought to be the main antioxidant compound in olives and believed to play a significant role in the many health benefits attributed to EVOO. Epidemiological studies suggest that EVOO has a protective effect against certain malignant tumors in the breast, prostrate, endometrium and digestive tract. Research has revealed that the type, rather than the quantity, of fat seems to have more implications for cancer incidence.
In addition to the internal health benefits of EVOO, tropical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturising the skin, especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturising the face with a mixture of Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Castor Oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. EVOO has been known for generations not only for its healing qualities but also as a natural, deep penetration moisturiser, regenerating skin cells and softening the tissue. EVOO is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup, and some even use it as effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair.
Studies on mice showed that application of EVOO immediately following exposure to UV rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.
EVOO is also widely used in cosmetics and soaps, and are immensely beneficial in adding smoothness and softness to dry scaly skin of tumors and skin cancer.
EVOO is unlikely to cause allergic reactions, and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It does not have demulcent properties and milk laxative properties, acting as a stool softener. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. EVOO is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions, and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus (a rumbling or gurgling noise made by the movement of fluid and gas in the intestines.).
Preliminary research indicates that EVOO could possibly be a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but confirmation requires future in vivo study. Olive Oil was also found to reduce oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, which may be a factor in preventing cancer.
Hagardhs Spanish Extra Virgin Olive Oil is made out of 3 leading category of Olives
Picual This is the most important variety in the world, representing 50% of Spain's olives and trees and, therefore, approximately 20% world-wide. Its geographic location is clearly linked to Andalusia, the main producing region in the world, and specifically to the provinces of Jaen, Cordoba and Granada. This cultivar is given different names depending on the producing area, but its main name, Picual (from the Spanish root "pico", meaning "peak"), comes from the shape of the drupe, as it is like a swollen teat ending in a point. The Tree is very vigorous with rather short spreading branches and it tends to sprout superfluous shoots. Its crowns are vigorous with a tendency to close in on themselves. The foliage develops well and the young wood is greenish-grey. It starts to produce early and is highly productive, which is one of the reasons why plantations of this olive tree have increased so much. It is a type of tree that adapts to different climatic and soil conditions and can tolerate frosts, although it is not very resistant to droughts and very limy soils. The Leaf of this tree is rather elongated and wider in the upper half. The Drupe is generally medium-sized to thick and weighs about 3.2 grams. The flesh-to-pit ratio is about 5.6. It ripens between the second week of November and the third week of December. The Oil yield is very good and can sometimes be up to 27%. The Picula Oil from a physical-chemical point of view, is excellent due to its fatty acid composition and the number of natural antioxidants it contains. Its high content of monounsaturated oleic acid, important to avoid cardiovascular diseases, and its low content of linoleic acid (an essential acid for the human diet) as well as its high content of polyphenols, make it the most stable oil in the world, with a long shelf life and it performs excellently when heated for cooking. From an organoleptic point of view, we have to differentiate between the plains and the mountains, as their organoleptic profiles are very different. Oils from the plains have great body, are normally bitter, with a certain flavour of wood. Oils from the mountains are usually sweeter, although they have a "fresh" and pleasant flavour.
Cornicabra This cultivar is the second in importance in the number of cultivated hectares, but the third in production. It originated in Mora de Toledo, and its cultivation area covers the provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real in the Community of Castilla la Mancha. Its name ("one-horned goat") comes from the characteristic horn-shape of its fruit. The Cornicabra olive is an old cultivar and is most likely a varietal population (family), with a large number of local ecotypes perfectly adapted to their area. This variety has average vigour, with medium-length branches, not very many shoots and the young wood is light grey with ochre tones. The Leaf is long and symmetrical, light green on the top side and greenish-grey on the back. The Drupe is elongated and rather bent, asymmetrical, plump and flat at the back, with a horn-shaped belly. It is of average size and weight (about 3 grams), but has a high oil yield, about 19% and a high flesh-to-pit ratio (5). The Drupe ripens late, usually starting in the last week of October and finishing in the first week of January. As it is strongly resistant to being picked, mechanised harvesting is difficult. The Oil is golden yellow with touches of light green indicating its fruitiness. When it is obtained from riper olives, at the end of the harvest, there are normally different flavours and textures that remind us of exotic fruit, like avocados. Cornicabra oils are fruity and have a noticeable balance between sweet at first, the bitterness of green leaves and a medium-intense peppery flavour. Their texture is smooth and velvety. They are stable oils because of their high content in monounsaturated fatty acids. The balanced composition of essential fatty acids, high content in oleic acid and minor components, which produce excellent aromas and flavours, make it especially appropriate for dietary purposes.
Arbequina This is one of the best known Spanish cultivars. Although it has been planted in the provinces of Saragossa and Huesca in the community of Aragon, it originated in the locality of Arbeca (Lerida), where the name comes from, and it is widespread in the provinces of Tarragona and Lerida, both in the community of Catalonia. The quality of the oil has led these two producing areas to being recognised with two Designations of Origin: Siurana and Les Garriques respectively. The Tree is found in olive groves or mixed with other crops, mainly vines, and sometimes grows on the edges of plots. The Tree, which is not very vigorous, can be used in intensive plantations. Its long shoots, non-spreading branches and the dark green colour of the young wood, make this olive tree look like a broomstick. The olive orchards of the arbequina cultivar give the landscape a very strange appearance and are very different from those seen in Andalusia, for example. This variety has an average flowering period in the first fortnight of May. The Leaf is fluted with not very thick edges, becoming wider at the tip. It is an ochre-green colour on the top side and greenish-grey-yellow on the back. The Drupe is short, oval and almost symmetrical, with a low flesh-to-pit ratio of 4.6, and as it is small, weighing about 1.9 grams, mechanical harvesting is difficult. However, it is a greatly appreciated cultivar as it starts producing early, with an average ripening period between the second week of December and the second week of January. It is highly productive and has a good oil yield, about 20.5%, which makes it one of the varieties with the highest oil extraction percentage. These Oils have an exquisite flavour with traces of tomatoes and vegetable gardens, and the aroma reminds us of fresh artichokes. They are also fruity with a certain exotic aroma. A fresh apple smell, accompanied by a certain mildness and sweetness, identifies the oils, with a final aftertaste of green almonds. They are also very fresh and young oils which, because of their composition, are a little more delicate than other varieties as far as oxidation is concerned, which is why they must be kept in the dark at a low temperature to guarantee protecting them for a longer period of time. These Oils have been appreciated for their quality for centuries, even though their production usually fluctuates greatly due to climatic conditions. Virgin olive oils of the arbequina cultivar are dense and pour well and vary greatly from one area to another, as well as within the same area, in successive years. When harvesting is started, the olives are very green and this characteristic is reflected in the organoleptic properties of the oils. The olives are not normally left to become completely ripe. To describe the average characteristics of these oils, we could say that they are fruity, slightly green and more or less bitter, peppery and sweet. They are, therefore, very balanced oils, with greener flavours (leaf), bitter and peppery at the beginning of the harvesting season, and sweeter at the end. We should also mention the almondy (green almond) aroma and flavour and the way they pour smoothly, which is a very pleasant sensation when tasting them.
Facts about Bordeaux French Wines, variety of grapes, classifications and more
French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectoliters per year, which is estimated around 7-8 billion bottles. France is the largest wine producer in the world and French wine traces it history to the 6th century BC, with many of France’s regions dating their wine-making history ever since.
The wines produced range from expensive high end wines sold internationally to more modest wines often usually consumed within France. Two concepts central to higher end French wines are the notion of “terroir”, which links the style of the wines to the specific locations where the grapes are grown and the wine is made, and the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system. Appellation rules closely define which grape varieties and winemaking practices are approved for classification in each of France’s several hundred geographically defined appellations, which can cover entire regions, individual villages or even specific vineyards.
France is the source of many grape varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah are just a few of the leading varieties, which are now also planted throughout the world, as well as French wine-making practices and styles of wine have been adopted in other producing countries.
The concept of Terroir, which refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyard, is important to French vignerons. It includes such factors as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill or terrain, orientation towards the sun, and microclimate (typical rain, winds, humidity, temperature variations, etc.). Even in the same area, no two vineyards have exactly the same terroir, thus being the base of the AOC system that has been model for appellation and wine laws across the globe. In other words: when the same grape variety is planted in different regions it can produce wines that are significantly different from each other.
A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France, centered on the city of Bordeaux and covering the whole area of the Gironde department, with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares making it the largest wine growing area in France and governed by Appellation Bordeaux Contrôlée. Average vintages produce over 700 million bottles of Bordeaux wine, ranging from large quantities of everyday table wine, to some of the most expensive and prestigious wines in the world. Around 89% of the wines produced in Bordeaux is red, called “claret” in Britain, (Claret derives from the French clairet, a now uncommon dark rosé, which was the most common wine exported from Bordeaux until the 18th century.), with sweet white wines mostly notable Sauternes, dry whites, and also in much small quantities rosé and sparkling wines, Crémant de Bordeaux, collectively making up the remainder. Bordeaux wine is made by more than 8,500 producers or châteaux. There are 54 appellations of Bordeaux wine.
The major reason for the success of winemaking in the Bordeaux region is the excellent environment for growing wines. The geographical foundation of the region is limestone, leading to a soil structure that is heavy in calcium. The Gironde estuary dominates the regions along with its tributaries, the Garonne and the Dordogne rivers, and together irrigate the land and provide an Atlantic Climate, also known as an oceanic climate, for the region.
These rivers define the main geographical subdivisions of the region:
The right bank situated on the right bank of Dordogne, in the northern parts of the region, around the city of Libourne.
Entre-deux-mers French for ‘between two seas’, the area between the rivers Dordogne and Garonne, in the center of the region.
The left bank situated on the left bank of Garonne, in the west and south of the region around the city of Bordeaux itself.
The left bank is further subdivided into:
Graves the area upstream of the city of Bordeaux
Médoc the area downstream of the city of Bordeaux, situated on a peninsula between Gironde and the Atlantic
In Bordeaux the concept of terroir plays a pivotal role in wine production with the top estates aiming to make terroir driven wines that reflect the place they are from, often from grapes collected from a single vineyard. The soil of Bordeaux is composed of gravel, sandy stone, and clay. The region’s best vineyards are located on the well drained gravel soils that are frequently found near the Gironde river. An old adage in Bordeaux is the best estates can see the river from their vineyard and majority of the land face riverside are occupied by classified estates.
There are more than 50 different varieties of grapes in France some more common French grape variety are: Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Grenache, Carigan, Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Piont Noir, Piont Meunier, Cinsaut, Petit Verdot for Red and Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Gris, Muscadelle, Sémillon, Viognier, Vermentino, Pinot Gris, Macabeu, Clairette Pinot Blanc for white.
Bordeaux red wine is generally made from a blend of grapes. Permitted grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec and Carménère, although today Carménère and Malbec are rarely used.
As a very broad generalisation, Cabernet Sauvignon (Bordeaux's second-most planted grape variety) dominates the blend in red wines produced in the Médoc and the rest of the left bank of the Gironde estuary. Typical top-quality Chateaux blends are 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 15% Cabernet Franc & 15% Merlot. This is typically referred to as the "Bordeaux Blend." Merlot (Bordeaux's most-planted grape variety) and to a lesser extent Cabernet Franc (Third most planted variety) tend to predominate in Saint-Émilion, Pomerol and the other right bank appellations. These Right Bank blends from top-quality Chateaux are typically 70% Merlot, 15% Cabernet Franc & 15% Cabernet Sauvignon.
White Bordeaux is predominantly, and exclusively in the case of the sweet Sauternes, made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle - Typical blends are usually 80% Sémillon, 20% Sauvignon Blanc. As with the reds, white Bordeaux wines are usually blends, most commonly of Sémillon and a smaller proportion of Sauvignon Blanc. Other permitted grape varieties are Sauvignon Gris, Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Merlot Blanc, Ondenc and Mauzac.
In the late 1960s Sémillon was the most planted grape in Bordeaux. Since then it has been in constant decline although it still is the most common of Bordeaux's white grapes. Sauvignon Blanc's popularity on the other hand has been rising, overtaking Ugni Blanc as the second most planted white Bordeaux grape in the late 1980s and now being grown in an area more than half the size of that of the lower yielding Sémillon.
Wineries all over the world aspire to making wines in a Bordeaux style. In 1988, a group of American vintners formed The Meritage Association to identify wines made in this way. Although most Meritage wines come from California, there are members of the Meritage Association in 18 states and five other countries, including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Israel, and Mexico.
The red grapes in the Bordeaux vineyard are Merlot (62% by area), Cabernet Sauvignon (25%), Cabernet Franc (12%) and a small amount of Petit Verdot, Malbec and Carménère (1% in total). The white grapes are Sémillon (54% by area), Sauvignon Blanc (36%), Muscadelle (7%) and a small amount of Ugni Blanc, Colombard and Folle Blanche (3% in total).
Following harvest, the grapes are usually sorted and de-stemmed before crushing. Crushing was traditionally done by foot, but mechanical crushing is now more common. Chaptalisation is permitted, and fairly common-place. Fermentation then takes place, usually in temperature controlled stainless steel vats. Next the must is pressed and transferred to barriques (in most cases) for a period of ageing (commonly a year). The traditional Bordeaux barrique is an oak barrel with a capacity of 225 litres. At some point between pressing and bottling the wine will be blended. This is an integral part of the Bordeaux winemaking process, as scarcely any Bordeaux wines are varietals; wine from different grape varieties is mixed together, depending on the vintage conditions, so as to produce a wine in the château's preferred style. In addition to mixing wine from different grape varieties, wine from different parts of the vineyard is often aged separately, and then blended into either the main or the second wine (or sold off wholesale) according to the judgment of the winemaker. The wine is then bottled and usually undergoes a further period of ageing before it is released for sale.
The Bordeaux wine region is divided into sub-regions including Saint-Émilion, Pomerol, Médoc, and Graves. The 60 Bordeaux appellations and the wine styles they represent are usually categorised into six main families, four red based on the sub-regions and two white based on sweetness:
Red Bordeaux and Red Bordeaux Supérieur Bordeaux winemakers may use the two regional appellations throughout the entire wine region, however approximately half of the Bordeaux vineyard is specifically designated under Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur AOCs. With the majority of châteaux located on the Right Bank in the Entre-Deux-Mers area, wines are typically Merlot-dominant, often blended with the other classic Bordeaux varieties. There are many small, family-run châteaux, as well as wines blended and sold by wine merchants under commercial brand names. The Bordeaux AOC wines tend to be fruity, with minimal influence of oak, and are produced in a style meant to be drunk young. Bordeaux Superieur AOC wines are produced in the same area, but must follow stricter controls, such as lower yields, and are often aged in oak. For the past 10 years, there has been strong, ongoing investment by the winemakers in both the vineyards and in the cellar, resulting in ever increasing quality. New reforms for the regional appellations were instituted in 2008 by the Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur Winemakers' Association. In 2010, 55% of all Bordeaux wines sold in the world were from Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur AOCs, with 67% sold in France and 33% exported (+9%), representing 14 bottles consumed per second.
Red Côtes de Bordeaux Eight appellations are in the hilly outskirts of the region, and produce wines where the blend usually is dominated by Merlot. These wines tend to be intermediate between basic red Bordeaux and the more famous appellations of the left and right bank in both style and quality. However, since none of Bordeaux's stellar names are situated in Côtes de Bordeaux, prices tend to be moderate. There is no official classification in Côtes de Bordeaux. In 2007, 14.7% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
Red Libourne or "Right Bank" wines. Around the city of Libourne, 10 appellations produce wines dominated by Merlot with very little Cabernet Sauvignon, the two most famous being Saint-Émilion and Pomerol. These wines often have great fruit concentration, softer tannins and are long-lived. Saint-Émilion has an official classification. In 2007, 10.5% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
Red Graves and Médoc or "Left Bank" wines. North and south of the city of Bordeaux, which are the classic areas, produce wines dominated by Cabernet Sauvignon, but often with a significant portion of Merlot. These wines are concentrated, tannic, long-lived and most of them meant to be cellared before drinking. The five First Growths are situated here. There are official classifications for both Médoc and Graves. In 2007, 17.1% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
Dry white wines Dry white wines are made throughout the region, using the regional appellation Bordeaux Blanc, often from 100% Sauvignon Blanc or a blend dominated by Sauvignon Blanc and Sémillon. The Bordeaux Blanc AOC is used for wines made in appellations that only allow red wines. Dry whites from Graves is the most well-known and the only sub-region with a classification for dry white wines. The better versions tend to have a significant oak influence. In 2007, 7.8% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
Sweet white wines. In several locations and appellations throughout the region, sweet white wine is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle grapes affected by noble rot. The best-known of these appellations is Sauternes, which also has an official classification, and where some of the world's most famous sweet wines are produced. There are also appellations neighbouring Sauternes, on both sides of the Garonne river, where similar wines are made. The regional appellation for sweet white wines is Bordeaux Supérieur Blanc. In 2007, 3.2% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
The vast majority of Bordeaux wine is red, with red wine production outnumbering white wine production six to one.
Bordeaux wine labels include:
The name and maybe even the image of estate or Château
The classification: Grand vin de Bordeaux
The appellation: Appellation Bordeaux contrôlée which means that the Bordeaux Appellation laws dictate, that all grapes must be harvested from a particular appellation in order for that appellation to appear on the label. The appellation is a key indicator of the type of wine in the bottle.
Whether or not the wine is bottled at the Château for example: Mis en Bouteille au Château
The vintage year example: 2000
Alcohol content: example 13% vol together with a warning via an image of pregnant woman not permitted to alcoholic drinks
Many of the top Bordeaux wines are primarily sold as futures contracts, called selling en primeur. Because of the combination of longevity, fairly large production, and an established reputation, Bordeaux wines tend to be the most common wines at wine auctions. The latest market reports released in February 2009 shows that the market has increased in buying power by 128%
Facts about The Gourmet Coffee Bean
Arabica Coffee Beans
For the coffee drinker there are two major types of coffee beans. The Caffea arabicais the Arabica
coffee beans which is the quality coffee of the world. Arabica coffee is the only coffee that is to be drunk and enjoyed without being blended with other types of beans. This is one of the varieties that qualify as a gourmet coffee bean.
Arabica coffee beans are native to South America but is now grown throughout the world. The Arabica plant can grow to forty feet in the wild but is pruned in cultivation to eight feet to allow for harvesting of the beans. The plant does not bear fruit until the trees are 3 to 5 years of age but can produce coffee cherries for up to thirty years. Being a tropical plant, it prefers temperature ranges from10C-24C. They thrive in areas with large amounts of rainfall and in altitudes between 3,000 to 6,500 feet. It is particularly prolific in the tropics of Central and South America.
The Arabica coffee beans accounts for about 70% of the world’s coffee production and is the most wildly grown species of coffee plant. Arabica coffee beans are the most expensive variety and are considered the premium and best tasting coffees of the world.
Robusta Coffee Beans
Caffea canephora which is known as robusta, are used for espresso coffees because of its harsher taste. The cost to produce robusta is much lower than Arabica beans and many of the major coffee roasters use this to blend it in with the higher quality Arabica coffee beans to increase their profitability.
The growth and cultivation of this plant is similar to the Arabica plant. The robusta also enjoys lots of rainfall but can thrive in hotter temperatures and higher humidity than its Arabica cousins. Grown mainly in west and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and parts of South America, robusta plants grow best in areas closer to the equator. The temperatures can range from 15C to 30C and the altitude can range from sea level to 3,000 feet. The robusta plant also differs in that they are more resistant to disease and produce a higher yield than Arabica plants. The robusta plant yields as much as two to three pounds of beans per year, which is about twice the amount of an Arabica plant.
Robusta beans are less flavorful and have a bitter taste. Robusta beans find their way into popular commercial coffee blends to lower the cost of production and coffee manufacturers classify this as a gourmet coffee bean. This cutting of the coffee allows Arabica beans to go further by mixing in the inferior robusta beans. So when you hear the phrase “coffee blend” be alert that it is just a blend of robusta beans.
Hagardhs Gourmet Coffee beans
Colombian Supremo Coffee; Loved by people all over the world, Colombian Coffee has the perfect balance of sweetness, acidity and a heady nutty aroma. It has all the characteristics of your favorite cup of gourmet coffee but at the same time, it is not overpowering. Our Colombian Supremo Andeano Estate Coffee is organically and shade grown.
The perfect start to a new day
Nothing beats the aroma of freshly brewed Hagardhs Colombian coffee on a fine weekday or even on a weekend morning. It gives your day a kick-start that no other drink can equal. So if you are having a hard time choosing which kind of coffee you should get, why not try the sophisticated classic that everybody loves? Without a doubt, our Colombian Supremo Coffee is one of the best to make your days. It is a crowd pleaser and a fan favorite. When you’ve got guests over, no matter what kind of coffee they prefer, they surely wouldn’t pass up the opportunity to have a cup of this exquisite coffee while nibbling on cookies or after having eaten a sumptuous dinner.
The Winning Characteristics of Colombian Supremo Coffee
When it comes to coffee, the excellent Colombian coffees win hands down. They produce absolutely delicious coffee beans that put Colombia on the map. If the tantalizing smell when you buy Colombian Coffees does not win you over, then the surprisingly rich and full-bodied taste surely will. It has the right amount of acidity which when combined with the unique nutty aroma and the perfectly sweet (never overwhelmingly sweet) taste, makes for one winning, knock-out combination that people from all walks of life have come to appreciate and love. Whether you like your coffee during the day or night, Colombian Coffee is truly the best choice.
To prove that this wonderful coffee really lives up to its name, people were asked to sample different kinds of coffee while they had blindfolds on. The majority chose Colombian Coffee which just goes to show that when it comes to producing high-quality coffee, nothing beats Colombians. They surely know that when it comes to producing coffee, balance is always the key to making a wonderful cup. On your first sip, you will instantly notice that there is nothing in particular that overpowers the other features of the coffee. And aside from that, there is no horrible aftertaste that leaves your mouth wishing for a glass of water after drinking a cup.
Colombian Supremo Coffee – Made Possible by the Perfect Geographical Setting
Colombia is a coffee connoisseur’s haven of delight with the wonderful climate all year round. That’s the reason why Colombia is considered as one of the giants in the world when it comes to producing coffee. The stable and wonderful climate – thanks to the volcanic mountains that are aplenty in Colombia – is the one responsible for Colombia’s world wide fame when it comes to producing coffee.
A Short History of Colombian Supremo Coffee
So who do we have to thank for the gourmet-quality cups of Joe that we get to drink if not on a daily, then, on a weekly basis? The Jesuits of course! Unless you love your coffee as much as you love your history, then you might not know that the Jesuits are primarily the ones responsible for the now famous Colombian coffees. The Jesuit missionaries actually brought Arabica coffee trees to the mountainous Colombia, and as we all know, Arabica trees are the ones that produce gourmet coffee that is a very important part of the morning routines of millions of people around the world. Robusta trees on the other hand are the coffee trees that produce lower quality coffee beans that will surely perk you up but lacks the delicious aroma and full bodied flavor of most Arabica coffee beans. Colombian Supremo Coffee is only made from 100% of the finest Arabica beans.
Arabica coffee trees prefer higher altitudes and cooler temperatures unlike their cousins, the Robusta coffee trees. The result of course is the full-flavored coffee that the Colombians are very proud of. The coffee beans, pretty much like the best vintage wines out there, goes through a slow maturation cycle which results in coffee that doesn’t lack in flavor or in personality.
The Process that Colombian Supremo Coffee Goes Through
The fruit of the Arabica tree is packed into sacks right after harvesting and then are sent to the depulping machine. After that, the coffee is fermented in order to enhance its very distinct characteristics. After twenty-four hours, the coffee beans are washed with water in order to remove impurities. This is the step that sets apart Brazilian coffee from authentic Colombian Coffee. Afterwards, the coffee beans are left to dry under the sun. During the night or rainy days, the beans are covered in order to ensure that it retains its characteristic aroma and taste.
How to Make Sure If You Have the Real Colombian Supremo Coffee
Colombian Supremo Coffee is very distinguishable. It is one of the lightest colored coffee beans in the Arabica family. If you want to make sure that you will buy pure 100% Colombian Coffee, then you should start by checking out its color. It should be a pleasant cinnamon color and the size of the bean itself is relatively larger than its counterparts. Next, you should take a whiff – does it have a heady, yet invigorating smell? If it is not heady and does not have a tinge of a nutty aroma, then you might be paying for a lower quality coffee.
Facts about Italian Pasta
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily. It is also commonly used to refer to the variety of pasta dishes. Typically pasta is made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked and served in any number of dishes. It can be made with flour from other cereals or grains and eggs may be used instead of water. Pastas may be divided into two broad categories, dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca). Chicken eggs frequently dominate as the source of the liquid component in fresh pasta.
Most dried pasta is commercially produced via an extrusion process. Fresh pasta was traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines, but today many varieties of fresh pasta are also commercially produced by large scale machines, and the products are widely available in supermarkets.
Both dried and fresh pasta come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known variably by over 1300 names having been documented. In Italy the names of specific pasta shapes or types often vary with locale. For example the form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending on region and town. Common forms of pasta include long shapes, short shapes, tubes, flat shapes and sheets, miniature soup shapes, filled or stuffed, and specialty or decorative shapes.
As a category in Italian cuisine, both dried and fresh pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes. As pasta asciutta (or pastasciutta) cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary sauce or condiment. A second classification of pasta dishes is pasta in brodo in which the pasta is part of a soup-type dish. A third category is pasta al forno in which the pasta incorporated into a dish that is subsequently baked.
Pasta is generally a simple dish, but comes in large varieties because it is a versatile food item. Some pasta dishes are served as a first course in Italy because the portion sizes are small and simple. Pasta is also prepared in light lunches, such as salads or large portion sizes for dinner. It can be prepared by hand or food processor and served hot or cold. Pasta sauces vary in taste, color and texture. When choosing which type of pasta and sauce to serve together, there is a general rule that must be observed. Simple sauces like pesto are ideal for long and thin strands of pasta while tomato sauce combines well with thicker pastas. Thicker and chunkier sauces have the better ability to cling onto the holes and cuts of short, tubular, twisted pastas. The ratio of sauce to pasta varies according to taste and texture, however traditionally the sauce should not be excessive as the pasta itself must still be tasted. The extra sauce left on the plate after all of the pasta is eaten is often mopped up with a piece of bread.
The art of pasta making and the devotion to the food as a whole has evolved since pasta was first conceptualized. “It is estimated that Italians eat over sixty pounds of pasta per person, per year, easily beating Americans, who eat about twenty pounds per person. Pasta is so beloved in the nation of Italy that individual consumption exceeds the average production of wheat of the country; thus Italy frequently imports wheat for pasta making. In contemporary society pasta is ubiquitous, and individuals can find a variety of types in local supermarkets. With the worldwide demand for this staple food, pasta is now largely mass-produced in factories and only a tiny proportion is crafted by hand. However, while pasta is made everywhere, “the product from Italy keeps to time-tested production methods that create a superior pasta”.
Pasta was originally solely a part of Italian and European cuisine owing to its popularity there. With an increase in popularity on a world-wide scale, pasta has crossed international borders and is now a popular form of fast food and a staple in North America and elsewhere. This is due to the great amount of Italian immigration into Canada and the United States around the beginning of the 20th century. Similarly an immense immigration of Italians into South Africa ensured that spaghetti and meatballs became an essential part of South African cuisine.
Basic pasta dough has been made mostly of wheat flour or semolina with durum wheat used predominantly in the South of Italy and soft wheat in the North. Regionally other grains have been used, including those from barley, buckwheat, rye, rice, and maize, as well as chestnut and chickpea flours. In modern times to meet the demands of both health conscious and coeliac sufferers the use of rice, maize and whole durum wheat has become commercially significant. Grain flours may also be supplemented with cooked potatoes.
Wheat being the major base for Pasta, hence, it enjoys great health benefits with its natural high protein and carbohydrates and dietary fibre.
Fresh pasta is usually locally made with fresh ingredients unless it is destined to be shipped, in which case consideration is given to the spoilage rates of the desired ingredients such as eggs or herbs. Furthermore, fresh pasta is usually made with a mixture of eggs and all-purpose flour or “00” low gluten flour. Since it contains eggs, it is more tender compared to dried pasta and only takes about half the time to cook. Delicate sauces are preferred for fresh pasta in order to let the pasta take front stage.
Fresh pastas do not expand in size after cooking; therefore, one and a half pounds of pasta are needed to serve 4 people generously. Fresh egg pasta is generally cut into strands of various widths and thicknesses depending on which pasta is to be made (e.g. fettuccine, pappardelle, and lasagne). It is best served with meat, cheese, or vegetables to create ravioli, tortellini, and cannelloni. Fresh egg pasta is well known in the Piedmont area near the border of France. In this area, dough is only made out of egg yolk and flour resulting in a very refined flavour and texture. This pasta is often served simply with butter sauce and thinly sliced truffles that are native to this region. In other areas, such as Apulia fresh pasta can be made without eggs. The only ingredients needed to make the pasta dough is semolina flour and water, which is often shaped into orecchiette or cavatelli. Fresh pasta for cavatelli is also popular in other places including Sicily. However, the dough is prepared differently: it is made of flour and ricotta cheese instead.
Dried pasta can also be defined as factory-made pasta because it is usually produced in large amounts that require large machines with superior processing capabilities to manufacture. Dried pasta is mainly shipped over to farther locations and has a longer shelf life. The ingredients required to make dried pasta include semolina flour and water. Eggs can be added for flavour and richness, but are not needed to make dried pasta. In contrast to fresh pasta, dried pasta needs to be dried at a low temperature for several days to evaporate all the moisture allowing it to be stored for a longer period. Dried pastas are best served in hearty dishes like ragu sauces, soups, and casseroles. Once it is cooked, the dried pasta will usually increase in size by double of its original proportion. Therefore, approximately one pound of dried pasta serves up to four people. The way to create the finest dried pasta is by mixing golden semolina flour, ground from durum wheat, with water. Good quality dried pasta is identified by its slight rough surface and compact body that helps maintain its firmness in cooking, since it swells considerably in size when cooked.
Pasta is generally served with some type of sauce; the sauce and the type of pasta are usually matched based on consistency and ease of eating. Northern Italian cooking uses less tomato sauce, garlic and herbs. In Northern Italy white sauce is more common. However Italian cuisine is best identified by individual regions. Pasta dishes with lighter use of tomato are found in Trentino-Alto Adige and Emilia Romagna In Bologna, the meat-based Bolognese sauce incorporates a small amount of tomato concentrate and a green sauce called pesto originates from Genoa. In Central Italy, there are sauces such as tomato sauce, amatriciana, arrabbiata, and the egg based carbonara and also the vegetarian pasta sauce with a mix of peppers and egg-plant (brinjal) and tomatoes. In Tuscany and Umbria pasta is often served alla carrettiera (a tomato sauce spiked with peperoncini hot peppers).
Tomato sauces are also present in Southern Italian cuisine, where they originated. In Southern Italy more complex variations include pasta paired with fresh vegetables, olives, capers or seafood. Varieties include puttanesca, pasta alla norma (tomatoes, eggplant and fresh or baked cheese), pasta con le sarde (fresh sardines, pine nuts, fennel and olive oil), spaghetti aglio, olio e peperoncino (literally with garlic, [olive] oil and hot chili peppers).
Although numerous variations of ingredients for different pasta products are known, in Italy the commercial manufacturing and labeling of pasta for sale as a food product within the country is highly regulated. Italian regulations recognise three categories of commercially manufactured dried pasta as well as manufactured fresh and stabilized pasta:
Pasta: Dried pasta with three subcategories
i. Durum wheat semolina pasta (pasta di semola di grano duro),
ii. Low grade durum wheat semolina pasta (pasta di semolato di grano duro) and
iii. Durum wheat whole meal pasta (pasta di semola integrale di grano duro). Pastas made under this category must be made only with durum wheat semolina or durum wheat whole-meal semolina and water, with an allowance for up to 3% of soft-wheat flour as part of the durum flour. Dried pastas made under this category must be labeled according to the subcategory.
Special pastas (paste speciali): As Pasta above, with additional ingredients other than flour and water or eggs. Special pastas must be labeled as durum wheat semolina pasta on the packaging completed by mentioning the added ingredients used (e.g., spinach). The 3% soft flour limitation still applies.
Egg pasta (pasta all'uovo): May only be manufactured using durum wheat semolina with at least 4 hens’ eggs (chicken) weighing at least 200 grams (without the shells) per kilogram of semolina, or a liquid egg product produced only with hen’s eggs. Pasta made and sold in Italy under this category must be labeled egg pasta.
Fresh and stabilized pastas (paste alimentari fresche e stabilizzate): Includes fresh and stabilized pastas, which may be made with soft-wheat flour without restriction on the amount. Prepackaged fresh pasta must have a water content not less than 24%, must be stored refrigerated at a temperature of not more than 4 °C (with a 2 °C tolerance), must have undergone a heat treatment at least equivalent to pasteurisation, and must be sold within 5 days of the date of manufacture. Stabilized pasta has a lower allowed water content of 20%, and is manufactured using a process and heat treatment that allows it to be transported and stored at ambient temperatures.
The Italian regulations under Presidential Decree N° 187 apply only to the commercial manufacturing of pastas both made and sold within Italy. They are not applicable either to pasta made for export from Italy or to pastas imported into Italy from other countries. They also do not apply to pastas made in restaurants.
Facts about Hagardhs Italian Pasta
Ours is dried pasta and made in our small family owned factory maintaining high Italian authentic standards and elegance. Our USP is authentic Italian pasta, hence, we focus more on producing fine quality pasta than into mass scale manufacturing.
Facts about Dutch Edam Cheese
Edam (Dutch: Edammer, is a semi-hard cheese that originated in the Netherlands, and is named after the town of Edam in the province of North Holland. Edam is traditionally sold in spheres with a pale yellow interior and a coat of red paraffin wax. Edam ages and travels well, and does not spoil; it only hardens. These qualities (among others) made it the world's most popular cheese
Most "young" Edam cheese sold in stores has a very mild flavour, slightly salty or nutty, and almost no smell when compared to other cheeses. As the cheese ages, its flavour sharpens, and it becomes firmer. It has a significantly lower fat content than many other traditional cheeses; fat comprises as little as 28 percent of the cheese. Modern Edam is softer than other cheeses, such as Cheddar, due to its low fat-content. However, it is not quite as suitable for toasting as are certain other cheeses, such as Cheddar.
Mild Edam goes well with fruit such as peaches, melons, apricots, and cherries. Aged Edam is often eaten with traditional "cheese fruits" like pears and apples. Like most cheeses, it is commonly eaten on crackers and bread, crackers and may be eaten with crackers following the main course of a meal as a dessert of "cheese and biscuits". It also goes very well with red wine; Pinot gris, dry riesling, semidry Riesling, Champagne, Chardonnay and Shiraz/Syrah are some recommended wines to accompany this cheese.
Edam cheese is very popular in USA, the Nordic countries, and many other countries around the world. In Spain and many Latin American countries, the cheese is considered a delicacy. In the Mexican state of Yucatan, it is prepared as queso relleno (stuffed cheese). A ball of cheese is cut in half and carved out; it is then stuffed with a mixture seasoned ground meat, raisins, capers and olives. Finally, it is braised in chicken stock, and served sliced with the chicken stock that has been thickened with cornstarch and spiced tomato sauce. It is the most common cheese used in Czech republic and also very often used as base of the popular snack (Czech: smažený sýr) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Slovak: vyprážaný syr) where it may be served with a slice of ham and always with tartar sauce (tatárska omáčka) or mayonnaise. In the Philippines, Edam is better known as queso de bola. Edam is especially popular during the Christmas season, when it is customary for Filipinos to serve and dine with family and friends during the nochebuena feast, or the Christmas Eve meal. It is commonly served with jamón and pan de sal. Its is also associated with Christmas in Sweden due to its red colour, and is often found on the Christmas "Julbord" buffet.
Hagardhs Dutch Cheese
Our Edam cheese is authentically crafted in our small family farm in The Netherlands for those cheese lovers, who want to cherish the goodness of edam cheese considering its high nutrition values
Facts about Chocolate
Chocolate is a range of products derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (i.e., cocoa butter) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. There are several types of chocolates according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation. Thus, Chocolate is a product based on cocoa solid and/or cocoa fat. The amount and types of cocoa solids and fat that the term implies is a matter of controversy. Manufacturers have an incentive to use the term for variations that are cheaper to produce, containing less cocoa and cocoa substitutes, although these variations might not taste as good.
There has been disagreement in the EU about the definition of chocolate; this dispute covers several ingredients, including the types of fat used, quantity of cocoa, and so on. But, in 1999, the EU at least resolved the fat issue by allowing up to 5% of chocolate's content to be one of 5 alternatives to cocoa butter: illipe oil, palm oil, sal, shea butter, kokum gurgi or mango kernel oil.
A recent workaround by the US confection industry has been to reduce the amount of cocoa butter in candy bars without using vegetable fats by adding polyglycerol polyyricinoleate (PGPR), which is an artificial castor oil-derived emulsifier that simulates the mouthfeel of fat. Up to 0.3% PGPR may be added to chocolate for this purpose.
Different forms and flavours of chocolate are produced by varying the quantities of the different ingredients. Other flavors can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans.
"Unsweetened chocolate", also known as "bitter", "baking chocolate", or "cooking chocolate", is pure chocolate liquor mixed with some form of fat to produce a solid substance. The pure, ground, roasted cocoa beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. With the addition of sugar, however, it is used as the base for cakes, brownies, confections, and cookies.
"Dark chocolate", also called "black chocolate", is produced by adding fat and sugar to cocoa. It is chocolate with no milk or much less than milk chocolate. The U.S. has no official definition for dark chocolate but European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Dark chocolate can be eaten as is, or used in cooking, for which thicker, baking bars, usually with high cocoa percentages ranging from 70% to 99% are sold. Dark is synonymous with semisweet, and extra dark with bittersweet, although the ratio of cocoa butter to solids may vary.
"Semisweet chocolate" is frequently used for cooking purposes. It is a dark chocolate with (by definition in Swiss usage) half as much sugar as cocoa, beyond which it is "sweet chocolate."
"Bittersweet chocolate" is chocolate liquor (or unsweetened chocolate) to which some sugar (less than a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla, and sometimes lecithin has been added. It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable when baking. Bittersweet and semisweet chocolates are sometimes referred to as 'couverture'. Many brands now print on the package the percentage of cocoa in the chocolate (as chocolate liquor and added cocoa butter). The higher the percentage of cocoa, the less sweet the chocolate is.
"Couverture" is a term used for chocolates rich in cocoa butter. Popular brands of couverture used by professional pastry chefs and often sold in gourmet and specialty food stores
"Milk chocolate" is solid chocolate made with milk in the form of milk powder, liquid milk, or condensed milk added.
"White Chocolate" is a confection based on sugar, milk, and cocoa butter without the cocoa solids.
"Cocoa powder" is used for baking, and for drinking with added milk and sugar. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural cocoa and Dutch process cocoa. Both are made by pulverising partially defatted chocolate liquor and removing nearly all the cocoa butter; Dutch-process cocoa is additionally processed with alkali to neutralise its natural acidity. Natural cocoa is light in colour and somewhat acidic with a strong chocolate flavour. Natural cocoa is commonly used in recipes that also use baking soda; as baking soda is an alkali, combining it with natural cocoa creates a leavening action that allows the batter to rise during baking. Dutch cocoa is slightly milder in taste, with a deeper and warmer colour than natural cocoa. Dutch-process cocoa is frequently used for chocolate drinks such as hot chocolate due to its ease in blending with liquids.
Flavors such as mint, vanilla, coffee, orange, or strawberry are sometimes added to chocolate in a creamy form or in very small pieces. Chocolate bars frequently contain added ingredients such as peanuts, nuts, fruit, caramel, and crisped rice. Pieces of chocolate, in various flavours, are sometimes added to cereals and ice cream.
Hagardhs Belgian Dark Chocolate
Our superior category Belgian Dark Chocolate is skilfully prepared as per the rich authentic taste of Belgian Chocolates, well known for the sweet bitter taste blended with its high nutrition values